The Science Of Thinking | Veritasium
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Unlock the science of thinking and discover how your brain works to make sense of the world around you.
Veritasium's Derek Muller investigates the science of thinking and how our brains process information in this video. He explores the way that our brains work by modeling them as two systems: System One (Gun) and System Two (Drew), which represent our automatic responses and conscious thoughts, respectively. Through examples and experiments, Derek reveals the limited capacity of our working memory and how slow, deliberate practice can allow us to automate tasks over time. He also shows how our physiology is a good indicator of the effort our brains are expending, such as increased heart rate, sweating, and pupil dilation. Understanding the science of thinking can help us recognize when we are not logically thinking and make conscious efforts to improve our thinking process.
1. System one (Gun) is the automatic, efficient, quick processor of information, while system two (Drew) is the slower, more conscious, and more effortful processor.
When it comes to thinking, most of us find it to be an unpleasant task to undertake. We try to avoid it in any way we can, for example when asked how long it takes for the Earth to go around the Sun, some people immediately answer a day when the correct answer is a year. This is a common blind spot in thinking due to the fundamental way our brains work and process information.
Psychologists have divided the brain into two systems, known as System One and System Two, or Gun and Drew. Gun is incredibly quick and able to process massive amounts of information in a short time and is responsible for automatic responses. Drew is the slower, conscious thought process and is in charge of following instructions and executing a series of steps. He is also the one capable of catching and fixing mistakes.
Learning and building more and bigger chunks of information is possible by storing it in long-term memory and passing off tasks from Drew to Gun. This requires slow deliberate conscious practice repeated often enough, until it becomes automatic so Gun can take over. An example of this is being able to recite a rhyme when tying your shoelaces, which eventually leads to muscle memory.
The Add One task is a great example of how hard Drew works when we're thinking. It requires us to remember four digits, and then add one to each digit, all while staying on the beat. When performing this task, our pupils dilate, indicating the effort from Drew. Contrastingly, when we are not engaged with the task or just chatting, our pupils don't dilate at all.
In conclusion, this video demonstrates the science behind thinking and how our brains process and automate information. Gun is able to process a large amount of information quickly and efficiently, while Drew is responsible for conscious thought and catching mistakes. Learning and building more and bigger chunks of information is possible by passing off tasks from Drew to Gun, with slow deliberate conscious practice repeated often enough until it becomes automatic. The Add One task is a great example of Drew's hard work and the effort it takes to think.
Improving cognition in learners begins with developing critical thinking, problem solving, and analytical literacy skills. These skills can be developed through a comprehensive guide, tailored to the specific details related in each scenario.
Critical thinking is the ability to assess a situation objectively, weigh the pros and cons of a decision, and make a rational judgement. To improve critical thinking skills, learners should be provided with opportunities to practice making decisions and analyzing different situations. This can be done through activities such as role-playing, group discussions, and problem-solving tasks. It is also important to provide feedback to learners, so they can learn from their mistakes and improve their decision-making.
Problem solving involves identifying problems, analyzing the data, and coming up with solutions. To improve problem-solving skills, learners should be encouraged to think creatively and to practice using logic and reasoning. Additionally, learners should be provided with problem-solving tasks that are related to real-life scenarios, so they can practice applying the skills they have learned.
Analytical literacy involves being able to interpret data, analyze trends, and draw conclusions. To improve analytical literacy, learners should be provided with opportunities to practice working with data, such as graphs, charts, and spreadsheets. Additionally, learners should be taught techniques for interpreting data, such as being able to identify patterns, trends, and correlations.
Overall, developing critical thinking, problem solving, and analytical literacy skills in learners is essential for improving cognition. To do this, learners should be provided with opportunities to practice these skills, such as through problem-solving tasks and data analysis. Additionally, feedback should be provided to learners, so they can learn from their mistakes and continuously improve their skills.
In this video, The Science of Thinking, we learn how we can upskill ourselves to be more successful in personal growth and professional development. We often try to avoid thinking because it can be uncomfortable and take effort. However, if we take a deeper look into how our brains work, we can see the potential to understand and improve our thinking. Modeling our brains as two systems, System One (Gun) and System Two (Drew), we can see how the two work together. Gun is incredibly quick and uses long-term memory to make automatic responses to information. Drew is our conscious thought, the voice in our head, and is slow and lazy. Drew is limited in the amount of information he can actively manipulate, but through chunking and repetition, he is able to transfer tasks from Drew to Gun.
For example, when learning to tie our shoelaces, we may have used a rhyme to remember the steps. After doing this multiple times, the process becomes automatic, stored in Gun's long-term memory. Musicians and sports stars refer to this as muscle memory, though of course, the memory is still in the brain and controlled by Gun. Through deliberate and conscious practice, it is possible to build larger chunks of information and develop Gun's automation skills.
Research has shown that when completing tasks that require conscious thinking, such as the Add One or Add Three tasks, there is a physiological response including increased heart rate, sweat production, and pupil dilation. This indicates how strenuous these tasks are for System Two. We can learn from this that most of our day-to-day life is handled automatically by Gun, reserving Drew's capacity for things that really need our attention. With this understanding, we can upskill ourselves to be more successful in personal growth and professional development.
Upskilling is essential for personal growth and professional development, and the video ‘The Science of Thinking’ provides an insightful look at how to do it. This video reveals that the human brain operates in two distinct parts – system one (Gun) and system two (Drew) – which are each responsible for different cognitive tasks. System one is incredibly fast, working automatically to quickly process large amounts of incoming information. System two is slower, but it’s the one responsible for conscious thought, actively manipulating information and following instructions.
The video illustrates how to make the best use of these two systems to learn new skills. Conscious practice is necessary to build larger chunks in the long-term memory, which can then be automated by system one. For example, the video gives the example of a person learning to tie their shoelaces. At first, they need to recite a rhyme to remember the steps but after doing it multiple times, it eventually becomes automatic.
Upskilling yourself also requires the effortful, conscious effort of system two. The video’s Add One and Add Three tasks demonstrate this. As the participants are completing the tasks, their pupils dilate, indicating that system two is hard at work. It is only by engaging with information multiple times that the task can be transferred over to system one.
So upskilling is a two-step process. First, it requires focused, effortful practice to actively manipulate novel information. Second, it requires repetition to transfer the task to system one. Once the skill is automated, it can be used to free up system two to learn even more. These strategies can be applied to any skill – whether it’s learning a language, playing a musical instrument, or solving complex problems. The Science of Thinking video provides a great introduction to the power of upskilling.
Analytical literacy is a key factor in personal growth and professional development. It is the ability to think critically and logically so that one can interpret information, make decisions and solve problems. The Science of Thinking video and transcript demonstrate how the brain works and how the two systems of the brain, System One (Gun) and System Two (Drew), interact to process and make sense of information. System One is the automatic, fast-acting system that quickly picks out the relevant bits of information and discards the rest. System Two is the slower, conscious thought process that requires more effort and is used for tasks such as problem solving and calculations.
The video highlights the importance of chunking information, or grouping related information together, in order to overcome working memory limitations. It also emphasizes the power of deliberate practice in developing muscle memory, which enables us to do things automatically without conscious effort. This is achieved by repeatedly engaging with the information, building larger and larger chunks in long-term memory, and eventually passing off tasks from System Two to System One.
Analytical literacy is not just about understanding the science of thinking, it’s also about putting it into practice. Practicing the Add One and Add Three tasks demonstrated in the video is one way to sharpen analytical literacy. Additionally, studying topics related to one's profession or area of interest, such as mathematics, economics, and psychology, can help build analytical literacy. Becoming familiar with the way information is structured and used in that field will make it easier to think critically and logically about that topic. Finally, it’s important to remember that analytical literacy is a skill that needs to be practiced and applied regularly in order to become proficient.
Watching this video is important for anyone who wants to become a better learner. It dives into the science of thinking and explains how the brain works. The video explains the two systems of thinking, System One and System Two, and how they interact with each other. It also explains how Gun, the automatic system, can take over when we are not paying attention and how Drew, the conscious system, can be used to catch and fix mistakes. This understanding of how the brain works can be beneficial when it comes to learning.
Not learning the content of the video may lead to a person relying too heavily on their automatic system, Gun. This could lead to mistakes or oversights that could have been avoided if the conscious system, Drew, had been used. Additionally, understanding the limitations of working memory, and how to overcome them by chunking information, is an important skill for any learner.
Using the ‘what’s in it for me’, ‘what’s in it for them’, ‘what’s in it for us’, and ‘what’s in it for the world’ approach to learning the content of this video will benefit you as a learner for personal growth and professional development. It’s in it for you because understanding the science of thinking will help you become a better learner. It’s in it for them because you can better understand how the brain works and use that information to help others. It’s in it for us because it will create an educated society that is better able to make informed decisions. And it’s in it for the world because it will create a more thoughtful and intelligent population.
In conclusion, watching this video is essential for anyone who wants to become a better learner. The content of the video includes important information about how the brain works and how to use it to become a more effective learner. Understanding the science of thinking is important for personal growth and professional development, as well as for the benefit of society as a whole.
Watching this video The Science of Thinking and reading its transcript, employers and their teams can gain a better understanding of how our brains work and how to better utilize their limited resources. By learning the core concepts of this video, employers can differentiate themselves from their computer systems and stand out from their competitors. With the knowledge of understanding the two systems of thought, System One and System Two, employers can better understand how to optimize their brain functions to increase efficiency and productivity.
By understanding the concepts of the video and transcript, employers can utilize the power of chunking and automation to increase their working memory and cognitive skills. With this knowledge, employers can better understand their customer and client needs, as well as how to better engage with them. Employers can also ensure that their teams are better equipped to handle complex tasks and problems.
By learning the content of this video, employers can benefit from improved customer and client engagement, increased efficiency and productivity, and increased cognitive skills. In the present, employers can set their teams up for success and stand out from the competition. In the past, employers can better understand how their brains work and how to better optimize their limited resources. In the future, employers can ensure that their teams are equipped with the knowledge and skills needed to stay ahead of the competition.
Completing a course in Cognition will help you on your career path to become more employable, promotable, and purposeful by helping you to level up your Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Analytical Literacy skills. These core competencies are essential for income-producing skills in high demand in high growth industries, and are the key to closing the Skills Gap towards meaningful work in the future.
Watching the Science of Thinking video and reading the transcript will help you to understand how the brain works and how to use it to your advantage. It will show you how our conscious thought, the voice in our head, is limited in what it can do, and how our unconscious thought, represented by the character of Gun, is incredibly quick and effective at processing huge amounts of information. It will also show you how to use chunking and deliberate practice to build bigger chunks of information in our long-term memory, essentially passing off tasks from Drew to Gun.
By understanding the way your brain works, you can become more effective at using it to your advantage. With the help of Cognition, you can learn to think more critically, solve problems more efficiently, and become more analytical in your literacy. These skills will help you to gain the income-producing skills that are in high demand in the future, making you more employable, promotable, and purposeful. So don't wait any longer, take the first step towards your future success and enroll in Cognition today!
"It is not the strongest of the species that survives, but the one that is most adaptable to change." -Charles Darwin.
This quote is a perfect fit for the video and its transcript. In the video, we see how the brain operates by having two systems, or characters, that work together - System 1 (Gun) and System 2 (Drew). Gun is the automatic response of long-term memory and Drew is the conscious thought of working memory. The video then explains how Drew has to engage with the information actively and effort-fully in order to learn, and that this process of building chunks through repetition is called chunking. This is where change and adaptation come in - in order for us to learn and grow, we must be willing to adapt to new information and environments. This idea of adapting to change is especially relevant to learners and employers, who need to stay up-to-date with the latest trends in order to succeed. Darwin's words, then, remind us to stay flexible and open-minded if we want to remain competitive in our learning and work.
The most important key takeaway from this video is that our brains have two distinct systems - System 1 (Gun) and System 2 (Drew) - that process information differently. System 1 is quick, automatic, and relies heavily on long-term memory, while System 2 is slower, more deliberate, and relies primarily on working memory. To develop more efficient thinking skills, it's important to understand these systems and how to use them effectively.
Thinking is hard and takes a lot of effort, so we often try to avoid it. Our brains are like a team of two characters, System One (Gun) and System Two (Drew). Gun is like a librarian who stores all the information we know and use in our daily lives, like when to turn on the lights. He is really fast and can fill in the gaps, but he can't figure out new things. That's Drew's job! He is lazy and slow, but he can do all the hard work of solving problems and remembering new information. By doing this often enough, Gun can learn it and turn it into automatic behavior. So, thinking is hard work, but it helps us learn new things and get better at it over time!
1. "For most of us, thinking is at least somewhat unpleasant. We try to avoid it, where possible." (Derek Muller)
2. "Now, one way of modeling how the brain operates is as though there are two systems at work psychologists call them system one and system two but maybe it's useful to think of them as characters so let's call system one Gun and system two Drew." (Derek Muller)
3. "Learning is then, the process of building more and bigger chunks by storing and further connecting information in long-term memory essentially passing off tasks from Drew to Gun. But in order for this to happen, Drew first has to engage with the information actively and effort-fully, often multiple times." (Derek Muller)
"The capacity to think and reflect is one of the most important skills we can possess." (John Sweller, Cognitive Scientist)
"By understanding how our brains work, we can better understand ourselves and our ability to think." (Daniel Willingham, Cognitive Psychologist)
"Thinking is a skill that can be developed, just like any other skill." (Dr. Art Markman, Cognitive Scientist)
1. Critical Thinking
1. Remember: Students will remember the concept of using two systems for how the brain operates- System 1 and System 2.
2. Understand: Students will understand the limitations of working memory and how to overcome them by chunking information.
3. Apply: Students will be able to apply their knowledge of chunking by using the “Add One” task to demonstrate the difference between System 1 and System 2.
4. Analyze: Students will be able to analyze the difference between System 1 and System 2 by looking at the physiological responses such as pupil dilation while performing the “Add One” task.
5. Evaluate: Students will evaluate the impact of System 1 and System 2 on their ability to think and process information.
6. Create: Students will create their own strategies to better utilize System 1 and System 2 when problem solving or learning new information.
1. I learned that our brains process information in two ways: System One (Gun) which is automatic and fast, and System Two (Drew) which is slow and conscious. System One stores information in long-term memory, while System Two exists in our working memory, and is only capable of holding four or five novel things in our minds at a time.
2. To make the most of our limited working memory capacity, we can use the process of "chunking" which is grouping things together according to our prior knowledge. This allows us to store more information in our working memory at once.
3. Lastly, I learned that when we are working on mentally strenuous tasks, our bodies will have a physiological reaction. This includes increased heart rate, sweat production, and pupil dilation. This is a sign that Drew is hard at work, and that most of our day-to-day life is a stroll for him with most tasks handled automatically by Gun.
Derek Muller is a science communicator, filmmaker, and educator. He has a PhD in physics from the University of Sydney and has presented over 1,000 lectures on science and skepticism around the world. He is the founder and host of the popular YouTube channel Veritasium and is an expert on the science of thinking because of his extensive experience in communicating science and skepticism to the public. He is also the founder and CEO of Veritasium Media, which produces and distributes science education videos. He is associated with the University of Sydney, where he was awarded his PhD in physics. University of Sydney
These three competencies are important to learn for the courses in Cognition as they are all essential to the process of understanding and analyzing information. Critical Thinking helps to evaluate information, identify assumptions, and draw conclusions, while Problem Solving allows for the ability to develop and implement solutions to complex problems. Analytical Literacy facilitates the ability to read, interpret, and analyze data.
To help build these competencies, a framework or pedagogy that can be used is that of the Socratic Method. This method encourages students to engage in dialogues and ask questions in order to explore their understanding of the material and challenge their assumptions. This encourages students to engage in critical thinking and problem solving, as well as to develop their analytical literacy skills. Additionally, activities such as case studies, simulations, and debates can be used to provide students with the opportunity to practice their critical thinking, problem solving, and analytical literacy skills.
Multiple-Choice Exam Question:
1. What are the two systems of the brain that are discussed in this video?
Thinking, Cognitive Process, Mental Ability, Deliberate Practice, Muscles Memory, Automation Skills, Working Memory, Long-Term Memory, Deliberate Practice, Physiological Response, Mental Equivalent, Pupil Dilation, Automatic Responses, Conscious Thought
1. The two systems of thinking, System 1 (Gun) and System 2 (Drew), represent long-term memory and working memory respectively.
1. Create a series of exercises to help individuals master the "Add One" and "Add Three" tasks, using visual, auditory, and verbal cues to practice mental math.
This learning instructional guidance was formulated using the GPT-3 language model created by OpenAI.
Thinking is hard work, but essential for learning. We must use effort to develop our mental skills & build up our #musclememory. 🤔 With practice, we can make even the most complicated tasks automatic! #learning #mentalskills #automation #education 📚 @Accredicity