[Music] allow us to discuss infinity think about opening your eyes and discovering your self surrounded by water and you can’t bear in mind ever not being in that water the primary query you would possibly ask is how did i get right here you have all the time been there what do you imply all the time when did i enter the pool you by no means entered the pool you will have all the time been within the pool okay however the place was i earlier than i used to be within the pool that is a false query there isn’t a earlier than wherein you weren’t within the pool you will have all the time been within the pool okay however all the time like how lengthy like a billion years no a billion years started a billion years in the past okay okay okay however i should have been born sooner or later what was earlier than me okay so like what’s our communication disconnect right here there isn’t a earlier than you you will have all the time existed within the pool all the time without end infinitely yep all the time okay so the purpose that i am attempting to make is that there are some ideas that we people simply can’t wrap our heads round and certainly one of them is the concept of one thing having all the time existed and having no starting we simply cannot actually grasp that idea it simply does not compute like if i informed you this street actually goes on without end you would be like i do not get it i can’t grasp infinity are we there but nope are we shut by no means getting there driving without end here is one other one attempt to think about nothing it is sort of not possible at first you would possibly envision nothing as darkness however darkness is one thing it is darkness so you then would possibly say is nothing simply empty area effectively empty area is one thing it is empty area however here is one thing attention-grabbing about nothingness whereas we will not actually grasp the idea of nothingness we are able to describe it with arithmetic roll movie please okay do not panic this may not be sophisticated and that i’ll do it actual fast am i able to get some background music so there’s this factor known as set idea and in set idea the whole lot inside a set is what exists and if nothing exists within the set then it’s known as an empty set and that’s principally a mathematical illustration of nothingness or just the quantity zero it sort of represents nothing i imply the image zero is itself a factor however it might additionally characterize a scarcity of issues so you possibly can see how we are able to describe nothingness with math though we will not think about it identical with infinity we will not grasp it however we are able to characterize it mathematically and use it to resolve equations so at the least mathematically infinity completely exists [Music] so why am i telling you all this as a result of one other one of many ideas that we’ve plenty of bother greedy though mathematically it’s not solely describable however really effectively understood is dimensions increased than the third dimension so that you see the sq. it has an x-axis and a y-axis when it has top added to it it turns into a three-dimensional dice it principally grows a z-axis okay that is smart a dice is a 3d model of a sq. however here is some weirdness my buddies okay hear fastidiously and similar to similar to movement with me [Music] so you possibly can develop one other entry to a 3dq and get a 4 dimensional dice simply similar to movement with me movement with me [Music] now we are able to solely proceed with our eyes and brains three dimensions like this dice so we will not actually grasp this concept of a fourth dimension it is like huh what the hell 4 dimensions which is what you are pondering now however whereas we will not actually see or understand a fourth dimensional model of this dice we are able to at the least describe it mathematically so similar to this can be a second illustration of a 3d dice here is a two-dimensional illustration of a 4dq there’s additionally a 5d dice a 6d dice a 100d dice and so forth and never simply cubes all shapes have increased dimensional counterparts theoretically there are countless dimensions and whereas we will not see any of them we are able to describe them utilizing arithmetic [Music] each time i replace this working system anyway now about all these dimensions present simply take my phrase for it you don’t want to come back to phrases with the existence of those dimensions to be able to admire the bonkers weirdness of what i am about to inform you in regards to the eighth dimension so on this film i need to inform you a couple of explicit geometric form really it is not a lot a form it is actually extra a construction an eight dimensional lattice recognized merely and mysteriously as e8 now that i acquired my 8d glasses on i’ll watch me some 8d tvs for some cause this 8 dimensional factor often known as e8 seems to encode all the particles and forces of our three-dimensional actuality so let’s discuss what e8 really is and what it’s is definitely fairly easy for reals think about circles all of them the identical measurement we draw them on a bit of paper stacked within the densest doable manner that one can stack circles of the identical measurement this occurs to be known as hexagonal packing by the best way now let’s put somewhat level within the heart of each certainly one of these circles and now let’s eliminate the circles and go away solely their heart factors so now we’ve one thing known as some extent area this level area is one which represents the densest packing of dimensional circles of the identical measurement proper now let’s discuss in regards to the densest packing of 3d circles or spheres once more all of them of the very same measurement ps we’re completely pretending that these oranges are excellent spheres of the very same measurement so the densest packing of 3d spheres is definitely fairly intuitive to us it is how we pack oranges within the grocery store by the best way that is sort of bizarre but it surely was solely in 2014 that somebody was lastly capable of show mathematically that this packing of 3d spheres is definitely the densest bizarre proper it was like this huge mysterious downside for years in arithmetic that no one was capable of show now let’s add factors within the facilities of all of our spheres whereas they’re on this dense association and once more let’s eliminate all the spheres and preserve solely the factors that characterize their facilities okay so now we’re left with the purpose area representing the densest packing of three dimensional spheres to this point so good proper y’all with me okay so e8 is the purpose area representing the densest packing of eight d spheres strings please now lots of you will have heard of albert einstein’s idea of relativity it is a idea that describes amongst different issues how gravity works and the way it impacts large our bodies like planets and plenty of of you will have additionally heard of quantum mechanics it is a idea that describes very small issues like electrons nobody has ever been capable of unify these two theories into what we colloquially name a idea of the whole lot or extra technically quantum gravity idea however for years now there was a idea that’s claimed to be a severe contender in unifying these theories and you have most likely heard of it it is known as string idea downside is string idea has sort of failed for years it has been getting tons of funding and grants in academia but it surely has by no means produced any profitable predictions are many physicists on the market who assume that the time of string idea is over and that e8 might play a extra severe function in an eventual idea of the whole lot so energy idea undoubtedly applies to paragliding undecided a lot else what do you bought towards string idea what do not i’ve towards string idea [Music] my identify is garrett lisi and that i dwell in maui as a result of why would i dwell anyplace else i used to be the one who first found a match between particle physics and e8 and when i first found it it was so extremely thrilling i knew i used to be engaged on this most likely the remainder of my life i got here to maui as a result of i acquired my phd in theoretical physics and that i thought of going off to do a postdoc someplace however just about all over the place i seemed would not permit me to analysis what i needed so i made a decision to separate off to maui and be a surf bum and work on what i needed right here within the 90s string idea was the recent analysis subject that everyone was going for and that i had checked out energy idea and that i simply thought it was sort of far-fetched i believed they have been making plenty of unjustified assumptions about the best way the universe works it wasn’t a nasty thought when it began they only over-promised and under-delivered what did they promise effectively energy theorists promised to determine a easy elegant description of elementary physics utilizing just a few easy rules and it totally totally failed to do this they stored piling on increasingly more problems till the speculation simply acquired ridiculous what would string idea folks say about what you simply stated um in the event that they’re sincere they’d agree with me however you understand folks get very hooked up to the concepts they’re engaged on and after a protracted sufficient time it comes onerous to allow them to go and transfer on to different issues energy idea has plenty of inertia as a result of you will have grants in place that assist the initiatives which are being researched and you’ve got college students engaged on string idea issues they’ve began their dissertations which within the final a few years that is one advantage of working by yourself for those who simply resolve the method you take isn’t gonna produce outcomes such as you thought it was you possibly can simply wipe the slate clear work on one thing else as a graduate pupil i actually fell in love with einstein’s idea of relativity his description of gravity is curving area time okay so tremendous nutshell clarification of how gravity works in accordance with einstein’s idea of relativity now this can be a huge oversimplification so science nerds don’t hate on me principally the concept is that area is a sort of cloth and objects akin to planets sit on this cloth and make it type of bend or curve in order that different objects like different planets will fall towards it heavier objects trigger a heavier curving of area or a stronger gravitational pull that means objects fall in direction of them quicker so this can be a very geometric description of gravity when i research particle physics it is simply it wasn’t a geometrical idea in the identical manner that uh gravity is described as curving spacetime so i needed to know an outline of elementary particles that matched up with einstein’s idea of gravity as a result of the universe is only one factor proper so there must be a unified description of this place the place we live while you do elementary arithmetic you invariably see these very elaborate sophisticated stunning mathematical constructions that come out and it simply so occurs that a few of these stunning mathematical constructions describe our bodily universe [Music] we all know of those forces that exist within the universe proper gravity electromagnetism the weak pressure the robust pressure and we’ve this complete spectrum of elementary particles and properties so that is an concept that’s been round for a very long time and i’ll describe it utilizing a hypothetical situation think about if we lived in a two-dimensional universe a completely flat universe all particles atoms folks buildings all are completely flat like a cartoon okay so on this second universe all particles akin to electrons quarks photons would all be two-dimensional so let’s take certainly one of these hypothetical two-dimensional photons for instance the concept is that there’s a circle hooked up to it within the third dimension type of above this second universe in such a manner that the photon is definitely only a level on that circle and that time seems in our second universe as a photon we can’t see your entire circle coming out of second simply the purpose of the circle that touches our universe this circle is named a fiber the fiber represents how the photon strikes by way of area and time so a photon is represented by simply this one circle and different particles and forces are represented by totally different combos of circles the elemental pressure often known as the weak pressure for instance has three circles that twist round one another in sure methods these teams of circles kind what are known as lead teams okay in order that clarification assumed a hypothetical two-dimensional universe however in our precise universe which is in 3d the fibers hooked up to our 3d area are in even increased dimensions so bodily we dwell in three-dimensional area and there are these different increased dimensional fibers hooked up to each level of our area and as these fibers twist over our area in time that seems in our area as particles propagating from one level to a different that is what all matter all forces that is what the whole lot is that this description of particles is solely geometric all of the forces we all know of they’re coming about from the curvature of those fibers the identical manner gravity is the curvature of space-time and that is this has really been recognized and customary in physics for for you understand over 70 years now so this concept was thrilling for just a few a long time however then folks type of forgot about it and began engaged on string idea however string idea as you guys know did not pan out so effectively so garrett took an enormous step backwards and tried to mix the speculation of those circles with gravity and a few attention-grabbing issues occurred so similar to numbers you possibly can add lead teams like you possibly can actually add teams of circles into bigger teams so when garrett added collectively the league teams representing every pressure and particle in nature that we all know of together with the lead teams representing some theorized however not but seen particles such because the graviton which is a theorized gravity particle all of them shaped this one huge league group and that i imply a extremely huge lead group one which has been recognized about in arithmetic for years and also you guys already know what it is known as it is known as e8 e8 is taken into account by many mathematicians to be probably the most stunning construction in arithmetic it simply so occurs that there is there’s this correspondence between the particles we see in nature and this most stunning mathematical construction ever found and there are some discrepancies we’re undecided precisely the way it will work or whether or not it should work in any respect however there’s sufficient of an identical between the recognized properties of picture particles and and the construction of this geometric mathematical object it’s totally promising very encouraging for describing physics so to essentially simplify this and once more science nerds do not hate on me i am simply attempting to provide you a easy visible think about if behind each particle we see in our 3d world there may be this eight dimension type of e8 machine behind the scenes that turns and rotates and after we view a particle in our world we see it as an electron or quark or photon or another factor in accordance with what this e8 machine is doing over there within the eighth dimension and in accordance with its orientation relative to our world so all particles and forces and space-time itself can geometrically rework into each other in accordance with the geometry of e8 so are all particles the identical by some means yeah they’re all they’re all totally different fibers of this e8 lead group effectively that is simply bizarre is not that nice so it is bizarre and mysterious {that a} level area in eight dimensions is so by some means basically associated to our three-dimensional actuality is not it yeah that is bizarre yeah i imply it is great and mysterious why arithmetic works so effectively describe our universe in any respect our bodily legal guidelines the truth that they’re accessible to us and that some elementary bits of arithmetic really describe our bodily world that is actually outstanding like we’re residing in a little bit of arithmetic it is come to life i am undecided in regards to the climate and the empire must be however after you have the linear window this can be a idea which is documented and you then go one step bigger within the measurement of your tetrahedron after which 10 steps bigger than 1,000,000 steps bigger all the breakthroughs in physics have come from folks prepared to step outdoors the field and do one thing artistic and radical hello my identify is clay irwin i am the director of quantum gravity analysis engaged on a idea of the whole lot known as emergence idea i’ve given up each different focus in my life i stop my job as an government years in the past to give attention to this daily with a group of physicists and mathematicians who work with me what’s actuality is actuality manufactured from vitality and if that’s the case what’s vitality is actuality made of knowledge and if that’s the case what sort of info is it’s it binary manufactured from zeros and ones is the universe a binary pc okay so in cleese idea actuality is at its most elementary degree a code or a language and this code relates deeply to e8 cli envisions a substructure of area and time on the tiniest doable scale you understand how your television display screen is damaged down into elementary models known as pixels effectively immersions idea suggests a three-dimensional pixel of actuality a elementary constructing block that the whole lot is constructed from the tetrahedron which is a three-dimensional equilateral triangle these tetrahedra mix with each other by way of varied mathematical guidelines all through all of area into an enormous construction klee calls the quasi-crystalline spin community and this community is not some random arbitrary thought it comes straight from e8 so now you will have a conundrum as a result of you will have this mathematical concept that actuality pertains to increased dimensions and but you are measuring or observing 3d so the one answer that we are able to consider is quasi crystals quasi crystals that is a mouthful some folks name them queasy crystals okay um so let’s discuss what a crystal is first a crystal refers to a sort of sample a periodic sample a checkerboard is an instance of a two-dimensional periodic sample the place for those who prolong it infinitely it’s going to simply be the identical sample without end you can even have three-dimensional crystal constructions like this cubic lattice now think about projecting a three-dimensional cubic lattice to a two-dimensional floor you create a shadow this shadow additionally has a sample but it surely is not periodic it additionally is not random it is a quasi-crystal a quasi-crystal in a sure dimension is a projection of a crystal in a better dimension [Music] bear in mind these factors representing the densest packing of circles and spheres really these factors are organized in a crystalline order now the e8 lattice is definitely an eight dimensional crystal and cle’s group initiatives this e8 crystal from 8d to 4d to 3d at a particular irrational angle to kind their theorized elementary substructure of area time when i make an irrational projection of e8 right down to a decrease dimensional shadow of e8 one thing outstanding occurs the article turns into a language that’s it turns into a finite set of geometric letters guidelines on how one can prepare these letters and freedom inside these guidelines which lets you specific or encode info so this three-dimensional quasi-crystal no that is my line so this three-dimensional quasi-crystal is actually a geometrical code a code composed of symbols which specific that means and this that means is actuality itself string idea speculates on quite a lot of hidden dimensions and after we ask effectively why cannot we measure these dimensions and observe them then the reply is effectively as a result of they’re too small to see in our method we by no means should introduce the upper dimensions as a result of we get the identical info of the upper dimensional math encoded within the three-dimensional dynamic quasi-crystal language [Music] mathematically one can recuperate the data of the e8 lattice that encodes unification physics from the decrease dimensional quasi crystal [Music] to me to have the ability to also have a one in 1,000,000 shot at discovering the very keys to the material of actuality is simply enjoyable like what what higher treasure hunt may one have i feel that the world is getting crowded and there is lots of people not having enjoyable as a result of they’re centered on getting sufficient water that is clear or meals and maybe understanding the deepest secrets and techniques of nature on the smallest scales shall be like having the keys to the dominion think about if we found the very cloth of actuality in express element the very workings on the pixelated scale of actuality that ought to open up a treasure trove of latest applied sciences and even perhaps new philosophies referring to the strangeness of quantum mechanics that permit issues that we could not think about the street to information is a protracted and winding one stuffed with moments of superb scientific discovery but additionally ones of bitter disappointment whether or not or not cli and garrett’s theories develop into accepted as mainstream quantum gravity theories many physicists imagine that actuality is deeply associated to increased dimensional objects e8 maybe as actual as it’s mysterious seems to be an actual contender on the street to discovering a idea of the whole lot [Music] hey are you able to reward them for sitting by way of that complete clarification with like some 80s rock and roll [Applause] [Music] do you bear in mind final yr when i did the science documentary the what’s actuality i feel i feel i despatched that to you i can not actually bear in mind however anyway um my most favourite half about that was um this half about matrices and there was this phrase in it that i wasn’t fairly positive on tips on how to pronounce it seemed to me like egan worth so proper i imply i feel that is what you’ll assume eagan worth so i requested is that this the way you pronounce it and david the director stated sure that’s the way you pronounce it so i went on the market and stated that is proper eagan worth after which apparently the web went nuts when it got here out as a result of apparently it is pronounced eigenvalue that is the way you’re presupposed to say it and the director do not imagine me the director informed me to say eagan worth and it is eigenvalue and the entire web similar to caved in on my cranium and it is simply sort of been terrible however like i get it and that i simply i really feel like the one one who understands these sort of issues it is simply good to get it off my chest but it surely’s similar to man eigenvalue eigenvalue eigenvalue it is not even like that [Music] you

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